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译文:绿色环境对健康有积极作用

译者:明扬  时间:2014-01-14
越来越多的数据显示,城市绿地有益于人们身体健康。一项研究结果表明,居住在绿色环境中,对市民心理健康有长久积极影响。英国研究人员发现,绿色环境对人的影响长期有效,不像加薪或升迁,只是一种短期刺激。研究人员表示,这一结果表明,公园环境好,对公众健康有益。这一发现刊登于环境科学与技术杂志上。一项研究表明,生活的生态环境越绿色,市民抑郁焦虑的情绪越少。基于这一研究结果,《绿色花园》合著者马修·怀特博士向BBC解释了他的研究成果,表示,“我们还不知道时间的轨迹。”他目前在英国克塞特大埃学欧洲环境和人类健康中心工作。“有可能是有许多原因,人们可以做各种各样的事情,使他们更快乐”他们努力工作,晋升,加薪,甚至结婚。“但问题是,不过半年到一年,他们的幸福指数又回来原来的水平线。”所以这些东西并不能持续长久地让我们感到高兴。我们发现,中奖超过50万英镑的的得主,肯定会得到正面影响,但半年到一年后,他们的幸福指数又回到基准线。 ”怀特博士说,他的团队想知道,是否在城市的绿色环境中生活,对人们身体健康具有持久的积极作用,这种影响是否也有一段时间后消失。为了完成这一项调查,该团队用来自“英国住户小组调查”(现已更名为“了解社会的调查”) ,该调查数据始记载始于1991年的数据,由埃塞克斯大学编制而成。“这是英国人口中大规模且具有代表性的样品(目前约为40,000一年户),并记录了一系列相关问题,如收入,婚姻状况等,”怀特博士说。也包括类似全面健康问卷等问题,临床医生和医生用以诊断抑郁症和焦虑症。 “长期的观察现象将会证明数据表现出来的问题,他说:“你将看到,即使在三年后,保持心理健康好过其他任何让我们开心的事。”怀特博士说,该研究团队已获得资金,开展进一步的研究,将研究在不同地区的婚姻关系以及在离婚率和满意度上的差异有多大。他还说,“人们在绿色环境生活,压力更少;压力小,能做出更明智的决定,沟通也更顺畅。”“这不是说,绿色环境是解决婚姻问题的万能药膏,当然环境也没有这种神奇的作用,但可能有助于调节双方平衡,这样的大背景能促使双方决定更明智,沟通成冷静成熟。”随着城市的绿色环境对人们的生活有积极作用越来愈明显,怀特博士说,政府官员将会对这一方面愈加关注。“但关键是,谁出钱为绿色建设。”“好比说,环境部门官员认为,如果绿色环境有益人们身体健康,那么社会医疗服务的投入资金将会相应减少。因此,许多人对此都很感兴趣,但我们真正需要的政策,帮助城市绿色环境建设的资金来源。
   
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原文:Green spaces have lasting positive effect on well-being

发现者:lylillian  来源: 发布时间:2014-01-13 类型:转载
Crystal Palace park (Image: BBC) There is a growing body of evidence that suggests urban green spaces are good for people's well-being

Living in an urban area with green spaces has a long-lasting positive impact on people's mental well-being, a study has suggested.

UK researchers found moving to a green space had a sustained positive effect, unlike pay rises or promotions, which only provided a short-term boost.

The authors said the results indicated that access to good quality urban parks was beneficial to public health.

The findings appear in the journal Environmental Science and Technology.

Green park

Co-author Mathew White, from the European Centre for Environment and Human Health at the University of Exeter, UK, explained the study built on the findings of a study that showed people living in greener urban areas were displaying fewer signs of depression or anxiety.

"But we did not know the time trajectory," he told BBC News.

"There could have been a number of reasons, for example people do all sorts of things to make them happier: they strive for promotion at work, pay rises, they even get married.

"But the trouble with all those things is that within six months to a year, they are back to their original baseline levels of well-being. So these things are not sustainable; they do not make us happy in the long-term.

"We found that within a group of lottery winners who had won more than £500,000 that the positive effect was definitely there but after six months to a year, they were back to the baseline."

Dr White said his team wanted to see whether living in greener urban areas had a lasting positive effect on people's sense of well-being or whether the effect also disappeared after a period of time.

To do this, the team used data from the British Household Panel Survey (now known as the Understanding Society survey), which began in 1991, and compiled by the University of Essex.

"It is a massive, representative sample of the UK population (currently about 40,000 households a year) and asks a load of questions, such as income, marital status etc," said Dr White.

"But it also includes something called the General Health Questionnaire, which is used by clinicians and doctors to diagnose depression and anxiety disorders."

Lasting effects

Explaining what the data revealed, he said: "What you see is that even after three years, mental health is still better which is unlike many of the other things that we think will make us happy."

Dr White added that the team had submitted an application for funding to carry out further research that would examine marital relationships in different areas and to what extent things like divorce rates and satisfaction levels differed.

"There is evidence that people within an area with green spaces are less stressed and when you are less stressed you make more sensible decisions and you communicate better," he observed.

"I am not going to say it is the magic pill that cures all marriage problems, of course it is not, but it may be the [background factor] that helps tip the balance towards making more sensible decisions and having more adult conversations."

With a growing body of evidence establishing a link between urban green spaces and a positive impact on human well-being, Dr White said there was growing interest among public policy officials.

"But the trouble is who funds it," he said.

"For example, environmental officials will say that if it is good for people's health then surely shouldn't the health service be putting some money in.

"So a lot of people are interested but what we really need at a policy level is to decide where the money is going to come from to help support good quality local green spaces."


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