译海拾贝 >> 英语 >> 数学.物理.化学.生物
   

The periodic table: how elements get their names  

发现者:lylillian 来源: 发布时间:2013-11-20 类型:转载
Periodic table of elements

Most people could name many of the elements, but how many of us know how they got those names?

Each of the 115 known chemical elements was discovered over the last few thousand years, from before recorded history began to the nuclear laboratories of the 21st century.

Their chosen names were influenced by an ever changing mix of language, culture and our understanding of chemistry.

So how did they get these names? And why do they end in -ium?

Ancient Elements

Several elements' names have Anglo-Saxon language origins, including gold, iron, copper and silver.

These metals were known long before they got these names, however. Gold can be found in its pure form in nature and although iron is usually found in ores which require smelting, the earliest known iron artefacts, from 3500 BCE, derive from purer metal from meteorites.

The Latin names of these elements are commemorated in their atomic symbols, Au (aurum) for gold and Fe (ferrum) for iron.

The Romans began the practise of element names ending in "-um," with Victorian scientists continuing the trend.

Element of uncertainty

Since 1947, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has had the responsibility for approving elements' names, and deciding the single internationally recognised symbol for each element.

Before this, there were multiple historical occasions of elements being given several names, usually due to simultaneous discovery or uncertainty over a discovery.

The name of element 41 was not agreed for 150 years. It was called columbium in America and niobium in Europe until IUPAC finally decided the official name would be niobium in 1949.

Dr Fabienne Meyers, Associate Director of IUPAC, explains the current naming process: To start with, "the discoverers are invited to propose a name and a symbol."

"For linguistic consistency, the recommended practice is that all new elements should end in '-ium'," she adds.

"Since the sake of naming an element is essentially to avoid confusion, it is important to ensure that the proposed name is unique and has not been used earlier even unofficially or temporarily for a different element."

"After examination and acceptance by the division - which includes a public review period of five months - the name and symbol are then submitted to the IUPAC Council for approval."

The name is then published in the scientific journal Pure and Applied Chemistry.

Actinium to zirconium

A common source of names both now and historically, over a quarter of the elements are named after a place, often where they were discovered or synthesised.

These places range in size from continents (europium) and countries (americium, francium, polonium) to the the Scottish village Strontian (strontium).

Because of the great wealth of discoveries made there, four elements are named after the Swedish mining village, Ytterby (ytterbium, yttrium, erbium and terbium).

There is just one element that wasn't first discovered on Earth, and it too is named after its place of the discovery - helium, from the Greek word for Sun, helios.


Myth and legend

About a dozen elements take their name directly from legends, including titanium, arsenic and tantalum.

Nickel and cobalt are named after 'devil' and 'kobold', from the Germanic folk belief that malign creatures snuck into mines to replace valuable and similar-looking copper and silver ores with these less valuable ones.

In 1949 the artificial element Promethium was named after Prometheus, the man in Greek legend punished with eternal torture for stealing fire from the gods, as a reference to the great difficulty and sacrifice needed to synthesise new elements.

Eponymous elements

Modestly, no discoverer has ever named an element after him or herself, but several scientists have been honoured by having elements named after them. These include curium, einsteinium and fermium.

Seaborgium, named after American chemist Glenn Seaborg, was the first element to be named after a living scientist.

There is also mendelevium, named after Dmitri Mendeleev, the Russian scientist who established the first periodic table in 1869, and fitted the known elements into their places in the table based on their properties.


   
用户:客人   IP:已隐藏   发表时间:2013-12-30  
要善于尊重自己不喜欢的 孟子曰:仁者以其所爱及其所不爱,不仁者以其所不爱及其所不爱。校长是老师的老师,是学校的灵魂,校长个人素养的高低,最终决定学校发展的命运。从这个层面上说,校长 要努力做仁者,因为仁者无敌。实践表明:评判仁者的标准很多,成为仁者的难度很大,争做仁者的途径多样。校长尤其要特别注意“以其所爱及其所不爱”,用自己独立的人格 和高尚的情趣去引领全校师生。换句话说,校长要善于尊重自己不喜欢的人与事。http://www.cnxinye.cn/products/proclass_373/无纺布制袋机 校长要有“宰相肚里能撑船”的胸怀,要能容天下难容之事。如果一个人内心平和,宽容仁厚,成熟达观,那么他对任何事情都会进退有度,对任何棘手的问题都能悄然化解。 教育规律告诉我们:校长是仁者,老师才有个性,学生才有特长,学校才有特色。校长不应该是官,应该是社会名流,应该是教育达人,故校长要能够真心俯下身子,走到师生们 中间去,倾听师生们真切的呼声。在听到师生的刺耳之声时,校长要特别沉得住气,要仔细分析刺耳之声背后的东西,毕竟,忠言逆耳利于行,良药苦口利于病。 能否尊重自己不喜欢的人与事,是衡量一个合格校长乃至仁者校长的标准之一。尊重自己不喜欢的人与事,需要校长剔除患得患失思想;尊重自己不喜欢的人与事,需要校长一心 为公。归根结底,校长要善于尊重自己不喜欢的人与事,学校必须去行政化。学校去行政化并非易事,更非一朝一夕之功,其所由来者见也。 能够真正做到尊重自己不喜欢的人与事的校长,一定是一个优秀的校长,一定是一个把自我生命完全融入于教育事业的校长,一定是一个为教育事业鞠躬尽瘁死而后已的校长,一 定是一个能成大事的校长,一定是一个受社会普遍欢迎与敬仰的校长。http://www.cnxinye.cn/制袋机 《易经》说:人谋鬼谋。《增广贤文》说:谋事在人,成事在天。但凡能够为社会聚集正能量之人,一定善于尊重自己不喜欢的人与事,甚至把自己不喜欢的人与事变成事业发展 的助推剂。http://www.raxinye.com/products/proclass_369/吹膜机 http://www.hu-song.cn/==》柔印机,柔性版印刷机 http://www.hu-song.cn/Products/P-670.html==》滚切机 http://www.hu-song.cn/Products/P-662.html==》纸杯印刷机 行政化学校的校长,校长本人很难当面听到逆耳之声,校长当面听到的几乎都是悦耳之言。孔子曰:法语之言,能无从乎,改之为贵;巽与之言,能无说乎,绎之为贵;说而不绎 ,从而不改,吾末如之何也已矣。不少的校长都对溢美之词都持“说而不绎,从而不改”的态度,都以为自己特别有本事,特别有能耐,特别有贡献。故而以学校主子自居,说一 不二,独断专行,利欲熏心。 http://www.hu-song.cn/Products/P-665.html==》圆压模切机 http://www.hu-song.cn/Products/P-683.html==》压胶成型机 http://www.chinayllsj.com/==》吹膜机配件 http://www.dybj.com/==》气泡膜机 善于尊重自己不喜欢的人与事的校长,一定是一个真性情人,切忌圆滑世故,切忌老气横秋,切忌所谓的“敏捷稳重”。 http://wwww.65137889.com/==》凹版印刷机 http://www.hengtongchina.com/cn/products.html 信封机 http://www.hengtongchina.com/ Window Patching Machine http://www.xymachine.com/news/plastics-blown-film-machine-of-six-maintenance-method-63.html/==》Plastics blown film machine http://www.xymachine.com/products/film-blowing-machine_239/==》blown film machine 善于尊重自己不喜欢的人与事的校长,需要校长居上不骄,为下不倍,更需要校长敦厚以崇礼,博学而笃志。其实,善于尊重自己不喜欢的人与事,就是最高境界地尊重自己的现 在和未来。 http://www.xymachine.com/==》Bag Making Machine http://www.xymachine.com/products/non-woven-bag-making-machine_237/==》Non-woven Bag-making Machine http://www.dong-hai.net/en/==》Flexo printing machine http://www.dong-hai.net/prod3.html==》卷筒模切机 http://www.dong-hai.net/lianxi.html/==》BST检标机 http://www.dong-hai.net/==》柔印机 《增广贤文》还说:知者减半,愚者全无。子思说:唯天下至诚为能化。孟子说:至诚,未有能不动者;不诚,未有能动者也。一个不诚信的校长,永远不可能尊重自己不喜欢的 人与事,抑或有之,亦是逢场作戏而已,无法获取震撼人心的效果,更不能得到师生的真诚信任与温度关爱。
用户:客人   IP:127.0.0.1   发表时间:2014-01-03  
Their chosen names were influenced by an ever changing mix of language, culture and our understanding of chemistry. 这句话译的不妥,不够确切
用户:客人   IP:127.0.0.1   发表时间:2014-09-02  
★自暴自弃,这是一条永远腐蚀和啃噬着心灵的毒蛇,订折机 http://www.zjmiaoshi.com它吸走心灵的新鲜血液,并在其中注入厌世和绝望的毒汁 --马克思 快递袋吹膜机 http://www.zjshunfeng.com ★祖国的未来在我们身上,<a href=http://www.zjshunfeng.com>快递袋吹膜机</a>我们的未来在我们的手中 --中学生宣言无纺布印刷机 http://www.zjshunfeng.com/News/N-48.html 无纺布制袋机 http://www.zjwanyuan.com ★我们应该有恒心,尤其要有自信心 --居里夫人 贴窗机 http://www.hengtongchina.com/cn/贴窗机 一个人绝对不可在遇到危险的威胁时,背过身去试图逃避。<a href=http://www.zjmiaoshi.com>订折机</a>若是这样做;只会使危险加倍。但是如果立刻面对它豪不退缩,危险便会减半。决不要逃避任何事物,决不!-温斯顿·邱吉尔 拉链制袋机 http://www.zjwanyuan.com
查看所有评论
发 表 评 论
用户: 隐藏IP地址: 匿名
校验码:
其它发现
A Pacific paradise few have seen
Canada’s greatest cycling trail
An underwater hotel opens in Africa
英闻天天译: 哥伦布日
俄罗斯:连续深蹲30次 免费乘地铁


 
译海拾贝信息搜索
快速通道

 
我站部分文章为网友自行添加,未能联系上原作者,如有版权问题,请告知我们,我们将立即删除! 查看联系方式
 
   
随你译 | LiveInChina | StarDict | 星际译王 | 同传网
Copyright © 2009 译心译意网 - All rights reserved.