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译文:元素周期表上的元素是如何得到自己名字的

译者:冰豚  所属联盟:英语译者联盟  时间:2013-11-22
大多数人都可以说出许多元素的名字,但很少有人了解这些元素是如何得到自己名字的。过去几千年,从有历史记载之前到21世纪可以进行核子试验的今天115个化学元素被一一发现。在语言、文化、化学发展的混和因素下影响着元素的命名。那么他们是如何得到他们名字的呢?为什么它们的名字以-ium结尾呢?一些元素名起源于盎格鲁-撒克逊语种,如金、铁、铜、银。然而,这些元素在它们被命名前就广为人知金可以在自然界中被人发现,铁却在矿石融化的状态下才可发现。公元前3500年,最早的人造铁由陨石中的纯金属提炼。元素的拉丁名由金属的原子符号命名,金为Au,铁为Fe。罗马帝国时期开始了以‘-um’结尾的元素命名原则,维多利亚时期延续了这种传统。元素名的这种不确定性直到1947年国际理论和应用化学联合协会负责定夺元素名,并确立每一个元素唯一的国际通用名。国际理论和应用化学联合协会负责定夺元素名,并确立每一个元素唯一的国际通用名。国际理论和应用化学联合协会负责定夺元素名,并确立每一个元素唯一的国际通用名。在此之前,通常由于元素同时被发现或者发现的元素无法确定身份,历史上有多起一种元素冠有若干名字的事情发生。41号元素名在150年间从未达成统一在美国它被称为钶,在欧洲它被称为铌,直到1949年国际理论与应用化学联合协会最终确立它的正式名字为铌。国际理论与应用化学联合协会副会长Fabienne Meyers 博士解释了当下的元素命名过程首先,邀请元素发现者来提议名字和化学符号。“由于语言在不断发展,我们推荐所有的元素命名都以-ium结尾的规则”她补充到。“之所以命名元素是为了根本上避免混淆元素,因此所提名字必须是独一无二且之前无论是非正式的还是暂时的都未冠名其他元素”在经历了有关部门——包括5个月的对公众开放期——的检验与接纳后,国际理论与化学联合协会承认名字与符号的权威性。名字之后在科学杂志纯粹与应用化学上发表。从锕至锆,多于四分之一的元素由地名命名,这些地方通常是它们的发现地或者是合成地。因为在一地发现了众多元素,四个元素名以瑞典矿村伊特比村命名(镱钇铒铽)。有一个元素,它是第一个在地球外被发现的元素,它也是以发现地赫利俄斯-希腊语中的太阳-命名的元素-氦。神话与传说 一部分元素从神话中得到他们的名字,包括钛,砷,钽。镍和钴是以“魔鬼”和“小鬼”命名的,因为德国民间迷信这些邪恶的生物会潜入矿中将值钱的铜矿和银矿替换成不值钱的相似物。1949年人工合成元素钷是以普罗米修斯命名的,普罗米修斯是希腊神话中的人物,因为从神界盗取了火种而受到了永久的惩罚,这可以比照合成一种新元素所需要的巨大努力与牺牲。人名命名元素 严格地讲,没有那个元素发现者将发现的元素以他或她的名字命名,但是一些科学家有幸得以自己的名字命名元素。这包括锔、锿、镄。钅喜以美国科学家盖伦·西博格名字命名,这是第一个以先存化学家名字命名的元素。钔元素也是以化学家德米特夫·敏捷列夫之名命名的。门捷列夫1869年建立了化学元素周期表,并将已知的化学元素按照它们的特性在表中对号入座。
   
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Their chosen names were influenced by an ever changing mix of language, culture and our understanding of chemistry. 这句话译的不妥,不够确切
用户:客人   IP:127.0.0.1   发表时间:2014-09-02  
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原文:The periodic table: how elements get their names

发现者:lylillian  来源: 发布时间:2013-11-20 类型:转载
Periodic table of elements

Most people could name many of the elements, but how many of us know how they got those names?

Each of the 115 known chemical elements was discovered over the last few thousand years, from before recorded history began to the nuclear laboratories of the 21st century.

Their chosen names were influenced by an ever changing mix of language, culture and our understanding of chemistry.

So how did they get these names? And why do they end in -ium?

Ancient Elements

Several elements' names have Anglo-Saxon language origins, including gold, iron, copper and silver.

These metals were known long before they got these names, however. Gold can be found in its pure form in nature and although iron is usually found in ores which require smelting, the earliest known iron artefacts, from 3500 BCE, derive from purer metal from meteorites.

The Latin names of these elements are commemorated in their atomic symbols, Au (aurum) for gold and Fe (ferrum) for iron.

The Romans began the practise of element names ending in "-um," with Victorian scientists continuing the trend.

Element of uncertainty

Since 1947, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has had the responsibility for approving elements' names, and deciding the single internationally recognised symbol for each element.

Before this, there were multiple historical occasions of elements being given several names, usually due to simultaneous discovery or uncertainty over a discovery.

The name of element 41 was not agreed for 150 years. It was called columbium in America and niobium in Europe until IUPAC finally decided the official name would be niobium in 1949.

Dr Fabienne Meyers, Associate Director of IUPAC, explains the current naming process: To start with, "the discoverers are invited to propose a name and a symbol."

"For linguistic consistency, the recommended practice is that all new elements should end in '-ium'," she adds.

"Since the sake of naming an element is essentially to avoid confusion, it is important to ensure that the proposed name is unique and has not been used earlier even unofficially or temporarily for a different element."

"After examination and acceptance by the division - which includes a public review period of five months - the name and symbol are then submitted to the IUPAC Council for approval."

The name is then published in the scientific journal Pure and Applied Chemistry.

Actinium to zirconium

A common source of names both now and historically, over a quarter of the elements are named after a place, often where they were discovered or synthesised.

These places range in size from continents (europium) and countries (americium, francium, polonium) to the the Scottish village Strontian (strontium).

Because of the great wealth of discoveries made there, four elements are named after the Swedish mining village, Ytterby (ytterbium, yttrium, erbium and terbium).

There is just one element that wasn't first discovered on Earth, and it too is named after its place of the discovery - helium, from the Greek word for Sun, helios.


Myth and legend

About a dozen elements take their name directly from legends, including titanium, arsenic and tantalum.

Nickel and cobalt are named after 'devil' and 'kobold', from the Germanic folk belief that malign creatures snuck into mines to replace valuable and similar-looking copper and silver ores with these less valuable ones.

In 1949 the artificial element Promethium was named after Prometheus, the man in Greek legend punished with eternal torture for stealing fire from the gods, as a reference to the great difficulty and sacrifice needed to synthesise new elements.

Eponymous elements

Modestly, no discoverer has ever named an element after him or herself, but several scientists have been honoured by having elements named after them. These include curium, einsteinium and fermium.

Seaborgium, named after American chemist Glenn Seaborg, was the first element to be named after a living scientist.

There is also mendelevium, named after Dmitri Mendeleev, the Russian scientist who established the first periodic table in 1869, and fitted the known elements into their places in the table based on their properties.


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