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译文:欧洲常见动物的数量有所恢复

译者:安凌渡  时间:2013-09-30

报告显示,欧洲一些常见动物的数量在过去50年间有所上升。

生态保护者说,像熊、狼、猞猁、鹰和秃鹫等动物的数量均在增加。

他们相信实施保护,限制打猎和人类搬离农郊入住城市等措施均有助于欧洲野生动物的恢复。

由伦敦动物学会、国际鸟盟和欧洲鸟类普查委员会共同开展研究。

Rewilding Europe的生态保护团队被委任撰写此次研究报告。(Rewilding Europe是欧洲一所大型的生态保护机构,旨在重造和保护欧洲主要野生区域,让生物再野生化。其团队也命名为Rewilding Europe。)

Rewilding Europe的执行董事弗兰斯·薛普斯说:“在人们的印象中,普遍认为欧洲已经失去了所有的自然区域和野生动物。

“所以我认为全世界都可以以我们的例子为鉴,生态保护绝对是行之有效的。只要我们有足够的资源,加上正确的策略,只要我们持之以恒,就一定会有所成功!”

Continue reading the main story (相关链接还有更多精彩故事)。

(图2)研究团队观察了18种哺乳动物和19种鸟类,例如白尾海雕。

在过去几个世纪里,动物们在欧洲的生存状况很糟。猎杀,丧失栖息地,还有污染等使得动物的数量急速下降。

而今这篇报告标志着情况的逆转。

研究团队查看了在欧洲各地发现的18种哺乳动物和19种鸟类。

他们发现从20世纪60年代起,除了伊比利亚猞猁,其它上述物种数量均有很大程度的回升。

增长最多者为欧洲野牛,欧亚河狸,白头硬尾鸭,一些数量的粉脚雁和白颊黑雁等。它们都从过去的50年间增长了30倍以上。

作为食物链顶端掠食者,例如棕熊,数量增加了一倍。还有灰狼,在过去曾遭受到重创,如今数量也比以前攀升了30%

哺乳动物恢复得最多的为欧洲南部和西部,它们的数量平均增加了30%左右。但鸟类的平均数量却仍然保持在一定范围内。

薛普斯先生说:“虽然第二次世界大战后野生动物们从五六十年代起确实已经开始复苏,但和1718世纪的数量相比起来,这仍然是一个非常低的数字,所幸它们还是在回升中。”

全球纵观:

研究人员相信诸多方面因素的结合推动了这次恢复。

欧盟推行法律保护措施,例如《欧盟野鸟保护指令》和《欧盟栖息地指令》,都有助于挽救物种濒危的处境,另外还设立了专门的保护方案,薛普斯先生说。

虽然有些动物在欧洲部分地区仍然允许捕捉,但都是有限制可以捕杀的数量的。

“当然也因为人类逐渐搬离农郊,给野生动物们腾出了更多的生存空间,”薛普斯先生说。

一些物种的恢复,特别是大型捕食动物,也引起了人们的担忧。在法国,像灰狼的数量在最近有所恢复,农民们担心他们饲养的牲畜会遭受损失。

报告指出,这是帮助欧洲野生复苏必然会遇到的问题,但建议政府应当落实赔偿方案以补偿农民们的损失。报告中还说,有了更多的动物农郊地区的居民或许还能从中获益,比如可以开展生态旅游区以提高当地经济的收入。

在今日生物多样性持续下降的全球背景下,这样的研究结果实在令人惊讶。

乔纳森·贝利教授,伦敦动物学会生态保护计划的主任,他说:“我们希望能找到生态保护成功的案例然后向他们学习,我们可以从中学习究竟是什么起到了作用,以扩大全球生态保护运动的规模。

“对我们来说,关注成功并从中找寻持之以恒有效的方法是非常重要的。

“但全球现在正面临着巨大的挑战。我们都知道欧洲制造的经济危机不只威胁着欧洲境内,而且是国际性的,世界各地低收入国家的经济60%的下跌是源于欧洲经济危机的影响。”

同时他也在呼吁,现在是关系到欧洲野生动物存活的一个关键时刻。

“我们必须意识到,欧洲在未来类如粮食生产和更多方面将会面临越来越大的压力,”他说,

“如果我们一不小心,放松保护政策,到时候这些好不容易增加的动物数量又会再次失去。所以竭尽所能保护动物是我们的职责,不容得有一丝的懈怠。”

   
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原文:Europe's key animals 'making a comeback'

发现者:lylillian  来源: 发布时间:2013-09-29 类型:转载

Brown bears

Some of Europe's key animals have made a comeback over the past 50 years, a report suggests.

Conservationists say species such as bears, wolves, lynx, eagles and vultures have increased in numbers.

They believe that protection, curbs on hunting and people moving away from rural areas and into cities have helped Europe's wildlife to recover.

The analysis was carried out by the Zoological Society of London, Birdlife and the European Bird Census Council.

The report was commissioned by the conservation group Rewilding Europe.

Frans Schepers, the organisation's director, said: "People have this general picture of Europe that we've lost all our nature and our wildlife.

"And I think what the rest of the world can learn from this is that conservation actually works. If we have the resources, a proper strategy, if we use our efforts, it actually works."

White-tailed eagle The researchers looked at 18 mammals and 19 birds, such as the white-tailed eagle

Over the past few centuries, animals in Europe have not fared well. Hunting, habitat loss, and pollution have sent animals into decline.

But this report marks a reversal in fortunes.

The researchers looked at 18 mammals and 19 bird species found across Europe.

They found that all, apart from the Iberian lynx, had increased in abundance from the 1960s.

The largest increases were for the European bison, the Eurasian beaver, the white-headed duck, some populations of the pink-footed goose and the barnacle goose. These had all increased by more than 3,000% during the past five decades.

For top predators such as the brown bear, numbers have doubled. And for the grey wolf, which saw serious losses in the past, populations have climbed by 30%.

For mammals, the comeback was largest in the south and west of Europe, and their range had increased on average by about 30%. The average range of the birds remained stable.

Mr Schepers said: "The wildlife comeback actually started after World War II in the 1950s and 1960s. Compared to the numbers in the 1600s and 1700s, it's still at a very low level, but it's coming back."

Global view

The researchers believe a combination of factors have been driving this return.

Legal protection in the European Union, such as the birds directive and habitats directive, had helped to revive the fortunes of species, as had dedicated conservation schemes, said Mr Schepers.

And while some animals are still hunted in parts of Europe, there are often limits on the number that can be killed.

"It is also because people are leaving the countryside, which leaves more space for wildlife," said Mr Schepers.

The recovery of some species, particularly large predators, has raised concerns. In France, for example, where wolves have recently returned, farmers are concerned that their livestock is at risk.

The report warns that this could be a growing problem, but suggests that governments should put in place compensation schemes to offset any losses for farmers. It also says that rural communities could benefit from more animals, as ecotourism could offer a boost to local economies.

The finding is surprising when seen in the global context, where biodiversity is in continuing decline.

Prof Jonathan Baillie, director of conservation at the Zoological Society of London, said: "We're trying to find success stories so we can learn from them, so we can see what works and scale that up across the conservation movement globally.

"And it is really important that we focus on success and where we are winning.

"But there are massive challenges out there globally. And we have to realise that the threats that Europe creates are not just within our borders, it's internationally, and that we are having an impact on the 60% decline we're seeing in low income countries around the world."

He also warned that Europe's wildlife was at a pivotal moment.

"We just have to be aware that into the future there will be increasing pressure for food production and so on within Europe," he said.

"And for a lot of these species, where we have seen the gains, we might lose them again if we are not careful. So it's our job to keep our eye on the ball."

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